International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJANR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all aspects of&nbsp;Nephrology. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research en-US International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research Nephrotoxicity of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) in Wistar Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nowadays, monosodium glutamate (MSG) is frequently used as a flavour enhancer, the fact of which makes it one of the most applied food additives in modern nutrition all over the world. But accurate information on the daily intake of specific food additives by individuals is difficult to obtain especially for food additives that are considered to be safe.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study sought to investigate the nephrotoxic effect of MSG on Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Forty Wistar rats were used for this study. Fifteen of the rats were used for acute toxicity test (LD<sub>50</sub>) and twenty-five for the experiment. Twenty-five (25) Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were respectively administered 500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1,250 mg/kg b. w. of MSG thoroughly mixed with standard feed for eight weeks. Animals in group E received an equal amount of feeds without MSG added. This group served as the control group. At the end of 8 weeks, animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed under diethyl ether anaesthesia. Renal indices were determined using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The LD<sub>50</sub> was taken to be 500 mg/kg b. w., which is the median of 200 mg/kg b. w. which did not kill any of the animals and 800 mg/kg b. w. that killed all its animals. MSG was observed to increase the concentrations of creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The elevation of renal indices by MSG is an indication that it is nephrotoxic.</p> Augustine I. Airaodion Kenneth O. Ngwogu Ada C. Ngwogu Anthony U. Megwas John A. Ekenjoku ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 1 10 Mineral and Bone Disorders in Pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 9.1% of the world population (estimated in 2017). The estimates indicate that globally 1.2 million people died of CKD in 2017. As kidney function declines, there is a progressive deterioration in mineral homeostasis. There are changes in circulating levels of hormones as well including parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and growth hormone. Studies have also found association between MBD and fractures, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality.</p> <p>It is well established that abnormalities in mineral metabolism are apparent early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study was undertaken to assess and compare the biochemical markers of bone mineral disorders in diabetics with early CKD and non-diabetics with early CKD.</p> Deepak Kumar Chitralli Brian Mark Churchill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 11 20 Assessment of Creatinine Levels in Blood and Saliva of Heamodialysed Subjects <p>The aim of this study was to determine if salivary creatinine responds to changes in concentrations in health, disease and treatment, and how these changes relate to changes in blood creatinine levels. Creatinine was assayed in both blood and saliva of 29 haemodialysed subjects; before haemodialyis and after haemodialysis; and 21 healthy individuals who made up the control group. Creatinine was assayed using Jaffe method. The mean±SD concentrations of salivary creatinine in pre and post haemodialysed subjects as well as control group were 143.3±21.3umol/l, 56.6±8.8umo1/1 and 15.7±1.7umol1/1 respectively. The mean±SD concentrations of blood creatinine in pre and post haemodialysed subjects as well as control group were 646.3±29.0umo1/1, 211.1±7.7umo1/1 and 78.5±2.4umo1/1 respectively. The correlation coefficient between blood and salivary creatinine in pre-haemodialysed subjects was -0.12 while that for post haemodialysed subjects was 0.11 and for the control group was 0.02. The salivary creatinine in the three groups (pre, post and control) was statistically significant (F=23.85; P-value &lt;0.05). The blood creatinine in the three groups (pre, post and control) was statistically significant (F=291.98; P-value &lt;0.05). From the various results obtained, salivary creatinine responds to changes in concentration after therapeutic administration. Salivary creatinine may be considered along with other parameters a supportive marker for diagnosis of kidney disease.</p> C. Amadi, Fyneface Konne, Joel Burabari Konne, Felix Eedee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 21 25 Evaluation of Antioxidant and Nephroprotective Effects of Hypoestes rosea in Acetaminophen Induced-Toxicity in Albino Rats <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant and nephroprotective effects of <em>Hypoestes rosea</em> in acetaminophen induced-toxicity in albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; This study is a case-controlled interventional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study was conducted at the Experimental Animal Unit of the Department of Human Physiology, University of Port- Harcourt, between June 2018 and December, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 112 adult apparently healthy albino rats weighing (180-220g) were used for this study. The rats were divided into six experimental groups of extract control (EC), negative control (NC), positive control (PC), aqueous extract of <em>Hypoestes rosea</em> (AEHr)100 mg/kg body weight (b w), AEHr 200 mg/kg b w., and AEHr 300 mg/kg b w. groups each of six rats. At the end of the study period, blood samples were taken through the jugular vein under chloroform anaesthesia for oxidative stress markers (SOD &amp; TAC) and renal function parameters (K+, Na+, Cl<sup>-</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub><sub>, </sub>urea &amp; creatinine<strong>)</strong><strong>, </strong>analyzed using auto analyzers and spectrophotometric methods. Kidney of rats were also harvested for histopathological study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that acetaminophen induced toxicity in albino rats caused oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced SOD and TAC from the oxidative stress parameters and elevated K+, urea &amp; creatinine and reduced HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> from the renal function&nbsp;&nbsp; parameters in the PC group when compared with other experimental groups. However, various concentrations of aqueous extract of <em>Hypoestes rosea</em> in a dose dependent pattern at the different treatment phases at acute and sub-chronic period was able to restore the damage caused by acetaminophen induction to normal. This was also confirmed by the histology study of the experimental group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Acetaminophen induced toxicity causes oxidant – antioxidant imbalance and nephrotoxicity that may lead to kidney damage, and consumption of AEHr by albino rats helps protect acetaminophen toxicity and possible damage to the kidney. Therefore, the results of this in-vitro study suggest that <em>Hypoestes rosea</em> have antioxidant and nephroprotective properties and should be subjected to studies in higher animals.</p> Ogregade, I. E. Igwe, F. Davies, T. G. Bartimaeus, E. S. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 26 36