International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJANR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all aspects of&nbsp;Nephrology. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research en-US International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research Nephrotoxicity of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) in Wistar Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nowadays, monosodium glutamate (MSG) is frequently used as a flavour enhancer, the fact of which makes it one of the most applied food additives in modern nutrition all over the world. But accurate information on the daily intake of specific food additives by individuals is difficult to obtain especially for food additives that are considered to be safe.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study sought to investigate the nephrotoxic effect of MSG on Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Forty Wistar rats were used for this study. Fifteen of the rats were used for acute toxicity test (LD<sub>50</sub>) and twenty-five for the experiment. Twenty-five (25) Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were respectively administered 500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1,250 mg/kg b. w. of MSG thoroughly mixed with standard feed for eight weeks. Animals in group E received an equal amount of feeds without MSG added. This group served as the control group. At the end of 8 weeks, animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed under diethyl ether anaesthesia. Renal indices were determined using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The LD<sub>50</sub> was taken to be 500 mg/kg b. w., which is the median of 200 mg/kg b. w. which did not kill any of the animals and 800 mg/kg b. w. that killed all its animals. MSG was observed to increase the concentrations of creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The elevation of renal indices by MSG is an indication that it is nephrotoxic.</p> Augustine I. Airaodion Kenneth O. Ngwogu Ada C. Ngwogu Anthony U. Megwas John A. Ekenjoku ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 1 10 Mineral and Bone Disorders in Pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 9.1% of the world population (estimated in 2017). The estimates indicate that globally 1.2 million people died of CKD in 2017. As kidney function declines, there is a progressive deterioration in mineral homeostasis. There are changes in circulating levels of hormones as well including parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and growth hormone. Studies have also found association between MBD and fractures, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality.</p> <p>It is well established that abnormalities in mineral metabolism are apparent early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study was undertaken to assess and compare the biochemical markers of bone mineral disorders in diabetics with early CKD and non-diabetics with early CKD.</p> Deepak Kumar Chitralli Brian Mark Churchill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 11 20