Assessment of Kidney and Liver Functions in Post COVID-19-Vaccinated Individuals in Rivers State, Nigeria

Obisike, U. A. *

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Tamuno, C. B.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Waribo, H. A.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Elekima, I.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aim: To assess kidney and liver functions in COVID-19-vaccinated individuals in Rivers State, Nigeria

Study Design:  Cross-sectional Observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Polar Precision Laboratories, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between May and November 2022.

Methodology: This study was carried out on 50 apparently healthy subjects; both males and females of which 30 were COVID-19-vaccinated subjects and 20 were non-vaccinated, which were used as control subjects. The studied subjects had previously received three types of vaccines: AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Moderna. The study analyzed kidney function parameters: [Creatinine (Cr), Urea(U), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chloride (Cl-) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-)] and liver function parameters: [aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total Protein, Albumin, Direct bilirubin and Total bilirubin], using colorimetric methods except for ALP in which kinetic method was employed. Statistical analysis of the data obtained was done using GraphPad Prism version 9.0.4 of Apple Macintosh HD Big Sur (version 11.0) and p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: It was observed that the mean ± SD for COVID-19 vaccinated subjects and non-vaccinated subjects were as follows: for renal function indices: Urea: 4.11 ± 1.03mmol/l and 3.95 ± 0.73mmol/l respectively, Cr: 100.7 ± 21.04mmol/l and 98.25 ± 15.33mmol/l respectively. Na+: 138.9 ± 4.80mmol/l and 142.7 ±3.65mmol/l respectively. K+: 4.49±0.63mmol/l and 3.17 ±0.20mmol/l respectively. Cl-: 101.0 ± 4.21mmol/l and 104.1 ± 3.14mmol/l respectively. HCO3-: 25.88 ± 3.32mmol/l and 26.74 ± 2.07mmol/l respectively. The result for liver function parameters were as follows: AST: 7.36 ± 5.16U/l and 8.08 ± 2.99U/l respectively, ALT: 2.90 ± 0.90U/l and 2.20 ± 0.62U/l respectively. ALP: 116.9 ± 36.30U/l and 118.5 ± 32.52U/l respectively. Alb.: 40.95 ± 2.49g/l and 38.90 ± 4.22g/l respectively. TP: 65.88 ± 3.40g/l and 68.05 ± 3.88g/l respectively. D.Bil: 2.147 ± 0.780µmol/l and 2.185 ± 0.502µmol/l respectively. T.Bil.: 7.31 ± 2.33µmol/l and 7.q3 ± 1.52µmol/l respectively. Comparison between the kidney function parameters for COVID-19 vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects was not significant (p > 0.05) for urea, creatinine and HCO3-, but was significant (p < 0.05) for AST, ALP, direct, total bilirubin, ALT, Alb and total protein.

Conclusion: From this study, it can be inferred that the COVID-19 vaccine had no negative effect on the liver and kidneys, but merely altered some biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Renal parameters, hepatic parameters, COVID-19 vaccination, Port Harcourt

How to Cite

Obisike, U. A., Tamuno, C. B., Waribo, H. A., & Elekima, I. (2024). Assessment of Kidney and Liver Functions in Post COVID-19-Vaccinated Individuals in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, 7(1), 13–25. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Beatty A, Peyser N, Butcher X, Cocohoba J, Lin F, Olgin J, Pletcher M, Marcus G. Analysis of Covid-19 vaccine type and adverse effects following vaccination. JAMA Network Open. 2021;4(12):1-13.

Klomjit N, Alexander MP, Fervenza FC, Zoghby Z, Garg A, Hogan MC, Nasr SH, Minshar MA, Zand L. COVID-19 vaccination and glomerulonephritis. Kidney International Reports. 2021;6(12):2969- 78.

Mann R, Sekhon S. Sekhon S. (Drug-Induced Liver Injury After COVID-19 Vaccine. Cureus, 2021;13(7):1-5.

Sohrabi M, Sobhe Rakhshankhah E, Ziaei H, Ataee Kachuee M, Zamani F. Acute liver failure after vaccination against of COVID-19; A case report and review literature. Respiratory Medicine Case Reports. 2022;35(2022):1-4.

Jayasinghe R, Ranasinghe S, Jayarajah U, Seneviratne S. Quality of online information for the public on COVID-19. Patient Education and Counseling. 2020; 103 (1):2594-7.

UNICEF. The evolving epidemiologic and clinical picture of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 disease in children and young people. UNICEF Office of Research; 2020. Available: [Accessed on 5 July 2022]

Weiss SR, Leibowitz JL. Coronavirus pathogenesis. Advanced Virus Research. 2011;81(1):85-164.

Yang D, Leibowitz JL. The structure and functions of coronavirus genomic 3’ and 5’ends. Virus Research. 2015;206(1):120-33.

Zaki AM, Van-Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. New England Journal Medicine. 2012;367(19):1814-20.

Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patientswith severe acute respiratory syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;348(1):1967-76.

Cui J, Li F, Shi Z. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2019;17(1):181-92.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Zhao X, Huang B, Shi W, Lu R, Niu P, Zhan F, Ma X, Wang D, Xu W, Wu G, Gao GF, Tan W. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(8):727-33.

Li F. Structure, function, and evolution of coronavirus spike proteins. Annual Review of Virology. 2016;3(1):237-61.

Schoeman D, Fielding BC. Coronavirus envelope protein: Current knowledge, Virology Journal. 2019;16(1):69-75.

Woo PC, Lau SK, Huang Y, Yuen KY. Coronavirus diversity, phylogeny and interspecies jumping. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2009;234(10):1117-27.

Hui DS. An overview on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease. 2005;63(3): 149-57.

Chan JF, Lau SK, To KK, Cheng VC, Woo PC, Yuen KY. Middle east respiratorysyndrome coronavirus: Another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SAR Slike disease. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2015;28(2):465-522.

Rahman A, Niloofa R, De Zoysa IM, Cooray AD, Kariyawasam J, Seneviratne SL. Neurological manifestations in COVID-19: A narrative review. SAGE Open Medicine. 2020;8(1):1-8.

Seneviratne SL, Jayarajah U, Abeysuriya V, Rahman A, Wanigasuriya K. COVID-19 vaccine landscape. Journal of the Ceylon College Physicians. 2020;51(1): 121-31.

Halim M. A report on COVID-19 Variant, Covid-19 Vaccines, and the Impact of the Variants on the Efficacy of the vaccines. Journal of Chemical Research. 2021;3(3): 1-19.

Clem A. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. 2011;3(1):73 -8.

Koirala D, Silwal M, Gurung S, Bhattarai M, Vikash KK. Perception towards online classes during Covid -19 among nursing students of a Medical College of Kaski District, Nepal. Journal of Biomedical Research and Environmental Science. 2020;1(6):249-355.

Bowers L, Wong E. Kinetic serum creatinine assays II. A critical evaluation and review. Clinical Chemistry. 1980;26: 555-9.

Patton G, Crouch S. Determination serum urea. Analytical Chemistry. 1977;49:464–9.

Henry RF, Cannon DC, Winkelman JW, Harper, Row. Clinical chemistry: Principles and techniques (2nd ed.). Hagerstown, MD; 1974.

Hillman G, Beyer G, Klin Z. Rapid determination of serum potassium by turbidity measurement with kalignost after protein precipitation. Biochemistry. 1967;5 (2):93-4.

Sterling R, Flores O. Automated method for micro-scale determination of serum carbon dioxide. Clinical Chemistry. 1972; 18(6):544-7.

Bablok W, Passing H, Bender R, Schneider B. A general regression procedure for method transformation. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry. 1988;26(11):783-90.

Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957;28(1): 56-63.

Young DS. Effects of disease on clinical lab. Tests (4th ed.). Rio Publishers; 2001.

Tietz N. Clinical guide to laboratory tests (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1990.

Weinstein J, Anderson S. The aging kidney: Physiological changes. Advance Chronic Disease. 2011;17(4):302–7.

Thapa BR, Wali A. Liver function tests and their interpretation. Indian Journal of Paediatrics. 2007;74(7):663-71.

Kudair IM, Al-Hussary NAJ. Effect of vaccination on some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2010; 24(2):59-64.

Lim JH, Kim MS, Kim YJ, Han MH, Jung HY, Choi JY, Cho JH, Kim CD, Kim YL, Park SH. New-onset kidney diseases after COVID-19 vaccination: A case series. Vaccines. 2022;10(2): 1-13.

Spanaus KS, Kollerits B, Ritz E. Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and beta-trace protein in diagnostic staging and predicting progression of primary nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. Clinical Chemistry. 2010; 56(1):740-9.

Zhang J, Cao J, Ye Q. Renal side effects of COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccines. 2022;10(11):1-18.

Hussain A, Yang H, Zhang M, Liu Q, Alotaibi G, Irfan M, He H, Chang J, Liang XJ, Weng Y, Huang Y. mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 and diverse diseases. Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. 2022;345(1): 314-33.

UNICEF. Frequently asked questions and answers on COVID-19 vaccination. Retrieved from frequently asked questions and answers on COVID-19 vaccination | UNICEF Nigeria; 2022.

[Assessed on 30/12/2022]

Kim IH, Kisseleva T, Brenner DA. Aging and liver disease. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 2015;31(3):184- 91.

Schmucker DL. Age-related changes in liver structure and function: implications for disease? Experimental Gerontology. 2005; 40(1):650-9.

Weinstein J, Anderson S. The aging kidney: Physiological changes. Advance Chronic Disease. 2011;17(4): 302–7.

Bowker LK, Briggs RS, Gallagher PJ, Robertson DR. Raised blood urea in the elderly: A clinical and pathological study. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1992;68 (797):174-9.