The Effect of Chronic Cigarette Smoking on Some Kidney Function Markers

Alajiogu Ebuka Emmanuel

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Madubuike Tochukwu MacPaul

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Okoye Augustine Chukwuemeka *

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background / Aim: One of the organs that are negatively impacted by smoking is the kidney. The purpose of this study is to compare the mean serum levels of urea and creatinine, microalbumin, albumin-creatinine ratio, and estimated glomerular filtration rate of smokers to non-smokers and their implications to ascertain the impact of chronic cigarette smoking on some kidney function markers.

Methodology: This investigation was conducted in and around Anambra State's Nnewi Metropolis. Two hundred participants, ranging in age from 20 to 40, were chosen at random and involved in the study. They were divided into two groups: the control group, which consisted of 100 healthy males, and the smoker’s group, which consisted of 100 male smokers who smoked at least seven sticks a day. All subjects had blood drawn, and spectrophotometric techniques were used to determine the levels of microalbumin, uric acid, serum urea, and creatinine. Each individual filled out questionnaires on their personal information, medical history, and drug use.  The participant was permitted to observe 10 minutes of sat resting to allow fluid shifts to equilibrate, reducing variability in a pre-analytical variable.

Results: Analysis of the data revealed that, as compared to the control patients, smokers had significantly higher mean levels of urea, creatinine, urine albumin (malb), albumin-creatinine ratio, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (p <0.05). When compared to the control group, the serum urea and creatinine levels in the smoking group were considerably higher (p >0.05).

Conclusion: Smokers experience negative effects on their renal function. Renal function was negatively impacted in the smoker’s group, they experience elevated serum creatinine and urea level. Since there is a decline in the filtration rate in the glomerular, an increase was observed in the urea ad creatinine level as a result of the decline. Nicotine usage does have several systemic effects mostly in connection with creatinine and urea in renal illness.

Keywords: Albuminuria, creatinine, Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), kidney, tobacco use, urea

How to Cite

Emmanuel, A. E., MacPaul, M. T., & Chukwuemeka, O. A. (2022). The Effect of Chronic Cigarette Smoking on Some Kidney Function Markers. International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, 5(1), 82–89. Retrieved from


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