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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 9.1% of the world population (estimated in 2017). The estimates indicate that globally 1.2 million people died of CKD in 2017. As kidney function declines, there is a progressive deterioration in mineral homeostasis. There are changes in circulating levels of hormones as well including parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and growth hormone. Studies have also found association between MBD and fractures, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality.
It is well established that abnormalities in mineral metabolism are apparent early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study was undertaken to assess and compare the biochemical markers of bone mineral disorders in diabetics with early CKD and non-diabetics with early CKD.
Published 2016 Nov 7.
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Accepted for publication.
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