International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJANR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all aspects of&nbsp;Nephrology. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research en-US International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Nurses Regard Infection Control Program in El-Hawwary Renal Dialysis Centre in Benghazi City, Libya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is one of the common health issues and difficulties faced by hospitals in all countries over the world. Since nurses are part of the healthcare team that perform an essential role in the control of hospital infection, this study is conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of nurses regarding infection control measures and precautions for hospital infection.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials:</strong> This is descriptive cross-sectional conducted on "El-Hawary Renal Dialysis Centre" in Benghazi city, Libya in 2017. The data collection instrument is composed of a self-structure questionnaire based on precautions suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were fed into the SPSS software v.22 and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result found that 88% of nurses reporting the higher level of exposure to the biohazards particularly, needle stick injury. In addition, most nurses do not have a good knowledge, attitudes and practices about infection control measures even though having an average &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As the outcomes show a low level of awareness among the nurses regarding hospital acquired infection, it is proposed to offer training sessions on the prevention and control of HAI in order to upsurge the awareness of nurses in the renal dialysis centre and hold practical courses for practicing these principles in relation to the application of the standard health precautions of WHO and CDC guidelines. Further studies should be implemented.</p> Amal Ali Mukhtad Rawand Ramadan Alfahkry Wafa Owhida Mousa Amani M. Alzawi Abeer Abd El-Alali Abd El-Razik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-24 2019-04-24 1 10 Bioassay-guided Fractionation of Carica papaya Seed Extracts against Potassium Bromate-induced Nephrotoxicity Detected Fatty Acid-rich Compounds and Prevents Oxidative Stress in Rat’s Kidney <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the effect and identify the bioactive constituents of <em>Carica papaya </em>seed with potency against potassium bromate –induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in renal tissue of rat.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>For each state of polarity, twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, five rats per group; normal control, KBrO<sub>3</sub> control, <em>papaya</em> fraction control and KBrO<sub>3</sub> group administered with required concentration of extract of <em>C. papaya </em>seed for 48 hours.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>&nbsp;A bioassay-guided screening of powdered <em>C. papaya </em>seed and its fractions was carried out against KBrO<sub>3 </sub>–induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress. The tests carried out include serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes. Also the following markers of oxidative stress were assayed in renal homogenates; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Spectroscopic analysis of the most active fraction was also carried out.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Fractionation of <em>C. papaya </em>seed yielded fractions and sub-fractions that prevent KBrO<sub>3 </sub>–induced increases in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes as well as the level of MDA. Furthermore there were increases in activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and level of GSH. F1 was the most active fraction. Spectroscopic analysis of F1 identified six functional groups and ten compounds. Seven of the compounds have been previously reported to possess antioxidant activities:&nbsp; 9-octadecenoic acid (z)- 2- hydroxyl-1- (hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, 17-octadecynoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid butyl 2-ethylhexyl ester, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (z,z) methyl ester, 10-octadecenoic acid methyl ester and 9,17-octadecadienal (z).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Fractions of <em>C. papaya </em>seed contain bioactive compounds that could prevent KBrO<sub>3</sub> –induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats however isolation and administration of each compound was recommended for a more convincing result.</p> M. A. Kanadi A. I. Abdullahi A. Idi I. U. Muhammad A. Mohammed A. M. Wudil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-20 2019-07-20 1 12 Prevalence and Pattern of Mineral Bone Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in South-South Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mineral bone disease (MBD) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and characteristics of CKD-MBD among adult patients with CKD attending the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>One hundred and fifty subjects with chronic kidney disease patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study were recruited. Patients had a detailed clinical assessment, biochemical and radiological evaluations for CKD-MBD. Biochemical investigations included&nbsp; serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The age range of the patients was 22-80 years, with a mean of 45.1 (±11.9) years. There were 90 males and 60 females with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. The prevalence of CKD-MBD in the study population was 55.3%. Of this, sixty one (73.5%) patients had low turnover bone disease while 22 (26.5%) patients had high turnover bone disease. The mean values for serum PTH, serum calcium, serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and caxpo 4 product among the CKD-MBD patients were 205.06±112.6 pg/ml, 2.56±0.73 mmol/l, 1.63±0.63 mmol/l, 109.26±65.57I U/L and 4.07±1.28 mmol2/l2 respectively but the values among non CKD-MBD patients were 123.08±120.99 pg/ml, 2.32±0.46 mmol/l, 1.54±0.57 mmol/l, 108.13±51.84I U/L and 3.52±1.32 mmol2/l2 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of&nbsp; CKD-MBD in our environment is high and low turnover bone disease is the commonest type.&nbsp;</p> O. Ndu Victor R. I. Oko-Jaja P. C. Emem-Chioma F. S. Wokoma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-06 2019-12-06 1 8 Sodium Retention and Intravascular Volume Status in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Overfill and underfill hypotheses have been posited to explain the development of sodium retention in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS). The clinical assessment of intravascular volume status during the oedematous phase of NS in children is challenging. We aimed to study the intravascular volume status in nephrotic children using urinary electrolyte indices and echocardiographic (echo) measurements of inferior vena cava (IVC) collapsibility and Aortic (Ao) diameter.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Prospective observational study. Twenty nephrotic children with oedema and ascites and not on any medications were enrolled. The intravascular volume status was assessed using urinary electrolyte indices [Fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) and Urinary potassium index (UKI)] and echo IVC collapsibility index (IVCI) and ratio of IVC and Ao diameters (IVC/Ao). FeNa ≤1% with UKI &lt;60% indicated primary sodium retention and with UKI &gt;60% suggested secondary sodium retention due to intravascular hypovolemia.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 20 nephrotic children, 16 showed urinary sodium retention (FeNa ≤1%). Two out of these 16 children also had high UKI (&gt;60%) indicative of secondary sodium retention. In the remaining 14 children out of 16, UKI was &lt;60% indicative of primary sodium retention. None of the subjects had IVCI in hypovolemic range. Three subjects had IVC/Ao ratio in hypovolemic range and two of these had urinary indices indicative of secondary sodium retention due to hypovolemia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Echocardiographic measurement of IVC/Ao ratio is useful for assessment of intravscaular volume status in children with nephrotic syndrome with oedema and ascites. Sodium retention during oedematous phase of NS in children is mainly due to primary sodium retention and is not associated with intravascular hypovolemia.</p> Jaideep Locham Shamsher Singh Dalal Harmeet Singh Arora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 1 7 Diabetic Kidney Disease: Its Pathogenesis and Management <p>As the prevalence of diabetes is increasing in India, there is equal rise in the number of the patients with micro and macro vascular complications related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetic kidney disease is increasing in Indian population because of genetic and non-genetic reasons. Because of paucity of data we don’t have exact numbers but it is the leading cause of end stage kidney disease in Indian population. Early screening for kidney disease and aggressive control of blood pressure and glycemic control can slow down and even prevent the progression of diabetic kidney disease.</p> Mandip Singh Bhatia Ritu Attri Ishwardip Singh Kwatra Rajni Kant Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-09 2019-10-09 1 10